Publication Type: Journal article
Year: 2022
Author(s): William E. Rudgard, Silinganisiwe P. Dzumbunu, Rachel Yates, Elona Toska, Heidi Stöckl, Lucas Hertzog, Dessalew Emaway and Lucie Cluver
Unit: AARHub
Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

Abstract: "Purpose: Ethiopia has registered remarkable achievements in reaching global development goals, including reducing child marriage. Policymakers are keen to understand which investments have contributed to this. We evaluated the association between Ethiopia’s Health Extension Program (HEP) and 12 adolescent health and wellbeing outcomes. Methods: We used Young Lives Ethiopia cohort data between 2002 and 2013. We evaluated associations between household support from HEP at age 15 and 12 adolescent outcomes spread across health, gender-based violence, education, and employment at age 19 using the inverse probability of treatment weighting propensity score approach, stratifying by sex. Adjusted probability differences (APDs) and adjusted mean differences (AMDs) were used to contrast exposure to HEP versus no exposure. Results: Of 775 adolescents with complete follow-up, 46% were female. Sixty-six percent of adolescents reported support from HEP, with higher rates of support in poorer, less educated, and rural households, particularly in Tigray Province. In boys, HEP was positively associated with education enrolment (APD: þ20 percentage points [ppts], 95% confidence interval [CI]: þ9 ppts, þ31 ppts) and literacy (AMD: þ6 ppts, 95% CI: þ0.2, þ11), and negatively associated with >4 hours in income-generating activities per day (APD: 19 ppts, 95% CI: 30 ppts, 9 ppts). In girls, HEP was positively associated with no child marriage (APD: þ16 ppts, 95% CI: þ4 ppts, þ27 ppts), no adolescent pregnancy (APD: þ17 ppts, 95% CI: þ6 ppts, þ28 ppts), education enrolment (APD: þ27 ppts, 95% CI: þ15 ppts, þ39 ppts), literacy (AMD: þ5 ppts, 95% CI: þ0.2, þ11), and numeracy (AMD: þ8 ppts, 95% CI: þ3; þ13). Discussion: Policies promoting HEP are likely to have supported improvements in multiple areas of adolescents’ lives in Ethiopia."

Citation:  Rudgard, W. E., Dzumbunu, S. P., Yates, R., Toska, E., Stöckl, H., Hertzog, L., Emaway, D., & Cluver, L. (2022). Multiple Impacts of Ethiopia’s Health Extension Program on Adolescent Health and Well-Being: A Quasi-Experimental Study 2002–2013. Journal of Adolescent Health, 71(3), P306-316.